Teachers should be well informed of literacy instruction. Teachers need to be capable of teaching students the necessary strategies at the level of which the student can learn. The approach to phonemic awareness, phonics, spelling, vocabulary, and fluency should be refined and retuned (Bear et al, 2004).
Phonemic awareness is an important aspect of literacy in the early stages of reading and pre-reading. It can be explicitly taught where the resulting goal is vast orthographic knowledge. However, before reaching the end students need to be exposed to eons of language through chants, nursery rhymes, and poems. The best suggestion was in the form of using Dr. Seuss to promote phonemic awareness (Cunningham & Allington, 2007).
Phonics is often left out in a whole language, supposedly balanced literacy type programs. However, phonics is yet another stepping stone on the road to reading success. Making words is a powerful way to work with phonics; many aspects of phonics can be explicitly taught through the activity (Cunningham & Allington, 2007).
Spelling is also developmental as students go through stages such as semiphonetic. A great activity, containing endless potential, to teach spelling is the use of a word wall. However, the word wall should be interactive and used with high quality spelling lessons.
Vocabulary development is highly effective when done through reading. The more the students read, the greater the increase in their vocabulary. However, students need to have the selection process modeled enthusiastically to create a love for words. Affective vocabulary through reading is a great way to get students to build their vocabularies (Cunningham & Allington, 2007).
At this time, fluency instruction is very much aligned with the ideas found in Classrooms That Work (Cunningham & Allington, 2007) and Words Their Way (Bear et al, 2003). Through repeated readings, choral reading, echo reading, and reader’s theatre, fluency is formed.
Literacy strategies are the foundation for a literate person. The goal in reading is to create life long readers through affectively effective strategies all the categories of literacy (Laureate Education, 2001).
Bear, D. R., Invernizzi, M., Templeton, S., & Johnston, F. (2004). Words their way: Word study for phonics, vocabulary, and spelling instruction (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall.
Cunningham, P. M., & Allington, R. L. (2007). Classrooms that work: They can all read and write (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Laureate Education (Executive Producer). (2001). Strategies for literacy instruction, part 1 [Educational video]. Los Angeles: Author.